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海南中南部地区旱稻(山兰稻)种质资源及保育模式(PDF)

《广西植物》[ISSN:1000-3142/CN:45-1134/Q]

期数:
2015年06期
页码:
905-912
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2015-11-20

文章信息/Info

Title:
Germplasm resource and conservative model of upland rice(Shanlan rice)in south-central Hainan
文章编号:
1000-3142(2015)06-0905-08
作者:
黄春燕2 罗文启1 王 波2 杨小波1*
1. 海南大学 热带作物种质资源保护与开发利用教育部重点实验, 海南大学, 海口 570228; 2. 琼中县农业技术推广服务中心种子站, 海南 琼中 572900
Author(s):
HUANG Chun-Yan2 LUO Wen-Qi1 WANG Bo2 YANG Xiao-Bo1*
1. Key Laboratory of Production and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resource, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; 2. Seed Station of Agro Technical Extension and Service Center of Qiongzhong, Qiongzhong 572900, China
关键词:
海南 旱稻(山兰稻) 种质资源 品种性状 保育
Keywords:
Hainan upland rice(Shanlan rice) germplasm resource cultivars’ characteristics conservation
分类号:
Q948.12
DOI:
10.11931/guihaia.gxzw201408008
文献标识码:
A
摘要:
山兰稻是一类适应性很强的旱稻品种,对于开发节水性高产稻种具有重要意义。该研究调查了海南中南部地区山兰稻种质资源的组成,并选种5个山兰稻品种开展其农艺性状和生产性状的研究,以期了解山兰稻种质资源在该地区的分布及生产现状,并进一步为其保护模式提供理论基础。结果表明:调查共获得38份山兰稻种质资源,含25个品种,主要分布在保亭、琼中和五指山三个市县,在现有的品种中约有45.0%在种植利用。因此,山兰稻品种资源面临濒危,亟需保护; 这25个品种可分为籼稻和粳稻2个类型,共聚成6个类群,不同区域间的种质资源具有亲缘性,其中3个独立聚集的品种有明显区域性分布的特征; 5个品种容易种植,生产性状较一致,其全生育期约为138 d,与历史栽培记录时间一致,遗传特性稳定,单位产量为2.0~2.8 t·hm-2,平均产量为2.4 t·hm-2。综上说明保护山兰稻品种的成本和技术难度不高,但其育种和栽培技术还需要进一步研究,种质资源的开发模式应结合生态保护、品种保育、社会需求等多角度进行综合考虑。
Abstract:
Shanlan rice is one of the varieties of upland rice with high ecological adaptablity, and is of great economic importance due to its high yielding capacity as well as less water needs. In order to get a better understanding of the current distribution patterns and utilization status of shanlan rice with respect to its germplasm resource and to develop a theoretical basis for the conservation of shanlan rice, an extensive survey was carried out in south-central Hainan Province. Five shanlan rice cultivars were selected to test their agronomic and production traits in Qiongzhong County, Hainan Province. The results were as follows: a total of 38 copies of shanlan rice germplasm resources containing 25 cultivars, were documented from south-central part of Hainan, most of which were distributed in Wuzhishan and Baoting County, with 18 and 11 cultivars respectively. Currently Shanlan rice germplasm had merely a utilization rate of 45%, and was at the risk of getting extinct and hence there is an urgent need of conservation. The field experiments showed that shanlan rice was highly adaptive and all five cultivars were not only easy togrow but also exhibited stable production traits, reflecting its stable genetic character. The total growth period of shanlan rice was approximately 138 d, which was consistent with its historical records. Shanlan rice was relatively low yielding, with a specific yield of 2.0-2.8 t·hm-2, with a mean yield of 2.36 t·hm-2. Clustering analysis showed that the 25 cultivars could mainly be divided into two types. i.e. glutinous and indica rice. The two types could be further classified into six categories, exhibiting abundant traits and diverse germplasm. Cultivars collected from different regions had genetic relationships, but species with peculiar traits showed a regional distribution. The conservation of these shanlan rice germplasm resource is needed which may not need lot of investment, and research works should be focused on the breeding and cultivation techniques to enhance the yield of Shanlan rice. The present paper suggests some development and exploitation approaches of Shanlan rice should be combined with ecological protection, resource conservation as well as social needs.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期: 2014-10-05修回日期: 2015-03-27
基金项目: 国家中医药行业科研专项(201207002-03); 海南省第二次全国重点保护植物资源调查项目(HD-KYH-2013099)。
作者简介: 黄春燕(1964-),女,海南琼中人,农艺师,研究方向为农业技术及推广,(E-mail)hcy6788@163.com。 *通讯作者: 杨小波,博士,教授,研究方向为植物资源与生态,(E-mail)yanfengxb@163.com
更新日期/Last Update: 2015-11-20