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|本期目录/Table of Contents|

青藏高原高寒草甸初级生产力及其主要影响因素

《广西植物》[ISSN:1000-3142/CN:45-1134/Q]

期数:
2010年06期
页码:
760-769
栏目:
植物生态学与环境生物学
出版日期:
2010-11-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Primary productivity and its main affecting factors of Alpine meadows on the Tibetan plateau
作者:
布仁巴音14 徐广平2 段吉闯14常小峰14 张振华14 汪诗平3*
1.中国科学院 西北高原生物研究所 高原生物适应与进化重点实验室, 西宁 810008; 2.广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西 桂林 541006; 3.中国科学院 青藏高原研究所, 北京 100085; 4.中国科学院 研究生院, 北京 100049
Author(s):
Burenbayin14 XU Guang-Ping2 DUAN Ji-Chuang14 CHANG Xiao-Feng14 ZHANG Zhen-Hua14 WANG Shi-Ping3*
1.Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008,China;2.Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006, China; 3.Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085,China;4.Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
关键词:
高寒草甸 初级生产力 放牧 气候变化 退化草甸恢复
Keywords:
alpine meadow primary productivity grazing climate change restoration of degraded alpine meadow
分类号:
-
DOI:
-
文献标识码:
A
摘要:
青藏高原有各类天然草地14×108 hm2,其中高寒草甸和高寒灌丛约占青藏高原天然草地面积的50%,占全国草地总面积的16.2%。嵩草草甸是高寒草甸的主体,包括矮嵩草草甸、金露梅灌丛草甸、藏嵩草草甸、小嵩草草甸和高山嵩草草甸等,这5类高寒草甸平均地上生物量分别为354.2、422.4、445.1、227.3和368.5 g/m2,地下生物量分别为3 389.6、3 548.3、11 922.7、4 439.3、5 604.8 g/m2,地下与地上生物量的比例分别为10.55、10.15、27.82、14.82和15.21,远大于IPCC(2006)报告中地下/地上生物量比例的默认值(2.8±95%)。地下生物量对气候变化和放牧的反应比地上生物量更敏感,干旱和重度放牧均降低了地下/地上生物量的比例。在极度退化状态下地下/地上生物量的比例<2。对于轻度和中度退化的高寒草甸应以围封禁牧为主要恢复措施,但如果结合补播和施肥,则恢复速率会加快;对于重度和极度退化的高寒草甸,由于草地植物群落中优良牧草的比例极低,仅靠自然恢复很难进行恢复或需要的年限很长,所以必须采用人工重建的措施,并结合毒杂草防除和施肥等措施进行恢复,通过建立人工或半人工草地的措施予以重建。
Abstract:
Alpine meadows and shrublands are approximately 7×108 hm2 which is about 50% of the natural grasslands on the Tibtean plateau and accounts for about 16.2% of the total grassland area in China. Alpine meadow is dominated by Kobresia meadow,including K.humilis meadow,Potentilla fruticosa shrub meadow,Kobresia tibetica meadow,K.parva meadow and K.pygmaea meadow. The average aboveground biomass of the five meadows was 354.2,422.4,4451,227.3 and 368.5 g/m2,respectively,while the belowground biomass of 0-40 or 0-50 cm soil depth was 3 3896,3 548.3,11 922.7,4 439.3 and 5 604.8 g/m2,respectively. Their ratios of belowground and aboveground biomass were 10.55,10.15,27.82,14.82 and 15.21 respectively,which were much higher than that of the default value(2.8±95%)recommended by IPCC(2006). The belowground biomass or belowground net primary productivity was more sensitive to the climate change and heavy grazing than abovegrassland biomass did. Drought and heavy grazing decreased the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass,even its value was less than 2 under extreme degradation conditions. Natural restoration is possible for light or moderate degraded alpine meadow for 3-8 years. However,it should be reconstructed for heavy or extreme degraded alpine meadow due to soil quality decrease and poison plant species and weeds invasion.

参考文献/References

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
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更新日期/Last Update: 2011-01-28